RFID-System-IntroductionIn recent years automatic identification procedure have become very popular in many service industries, manufacturing companies, purchasing and distribution logistics, and material flow systems. Automatic identification procedures provide information on people, animals, goods, products, transportation’s, the most common form of electronic data-carrying devices are the smart card based upon a contact field, however, the mechanical contact used in the smart card is often impractical. A contact less transfer of data between the data-carrying device and its reader is far more flexible, the power required to operate the electronic data-carrying device would also be transferred from the reader using contact less technology. Because of the procedures used for the transfer of power and data. contact less ID System are called RFID system (Radio Frequency Identification System).

The contact less identification technology has been develop into an independent interdisciplinary field. Which no longer fits intro any of the conventional pigeonholes. It brings together elements from extremely varied field: RF Technology and EMC, Semiconductor Technology, Data Protection and Cryptography, Telecommunication, Manufacture Technology and many related areas.

The RFID Systems are closely related to the smart cards system, the smart card can store a data on an electronic data carrying device named the transponder, however, unlike the smart card. the power supply to data-carrying device and the data exchange between the data-carrying device and the reader reads without the use of galvanic contacts, using magnetic or electromagnetic field. The technical procedure is drawn from the fields of radio and radar engineering. The RFID has a data carried by the radio waves.

Due to numerous advantages of RFID compared with other identification systems
RFID system are now beginning to conquer the identification information system. One example is the use of non contact smart cards, tickets, car tagging, public transportations even shopping at the mall with customer loyalty tag built to the shopping bards.
The RFID frequency spectrum
RFID is considered as a non specific short range device. It can use frequency bands without a license. Nevertheless, RFID has to be compliant with local regulations (ETSI, FCC etc.)
•LF : 125 kHz – 134,2 kHz : low frequencies,
•HF : 13.56 MHz : high frequencies,
•UHF : 860 MHz – 960 MHz : ultra high frequencies,
•SHF : 2.45 GHz : super high frequencies

Here is a graph of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequency bands that the RFID systems use

Les tags fq

The LF(Low Frequency), HF(High Frequency) and The UHF(Ultra High Frequency) RFID tags

RFID-Tags-Frequency

• RFID LF tags are well adapted for logistics and traceability applications. Glass tags are small and light. They can used be with all kinds of material – textiles, metals, plastics etc.
• RFID HF tags are used in traceability and logistics applications. Loop antenna can be printed or etched on flexible substrates.
• RFID UHF tags have dipole like antenna etched or printed on all kind of substrate. The read range of such a tag can be around 3 to 6 or even 8 meters. Specific antenna design is required for metallic or wet environments.

Below are the example of programming the RFID on VHF 13.56MHz on Arduino

The MFRC522 is a highly integrated reader/writer IC for contactless communication at 13.56 MHz. The MFRC522 reader supports ISO/IEC 14443 A/MIFARE mode.

RFID-Reader-Writer-01

Features:

MFRC522 chip based board
Operating frequency: 13.56MHz
Current: 13-26mA
Read Range: Approx 3cm with supplied card and fob
SPI Interface
Max Data Transfer Rate: 10Mbit / s
Supply Voltage: 3.3V
Dimensions: 60mm × 39mm
The MFRC522 supports all variants of the MIFARE Mini, MIFARE 1K, MIFARE 4K, MIFARE Ultralight, MIFARE DESFire EV1 and MIFARE Plus RF identification protocols.

Download The RFID Tag Library & Other Source Codes here | ZIP
Download the MFRC522 Datasheet | PDF

 

Introduction of RFID System & Wiring the VHF Reader/Writer 13.5Mhz on Arduino
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